Milking 170 cows and committed to annual BVD vaccination

“I have been vaccinating against BVD for the past 12 years and will continue to do so until we rid the country of the disease,” said dairy farmer Peter Brophy.
Peter, who with his mother Margaret farms at Wells, Bagenalstown, switched from sucklers to dairying three years ago and plans to milk just under 170 cows this year.
“Twelve years ago, we had a BVD outbreak in the suckler herd. We had two persistently infected (PI) calves born. Ever since then, we vaccinate every year with Bovilis BVD. We haven’t had a PI or any issue with BVD on the farm since”

Bovilis BVD

All replacement heifers are given their primary and booster shots of Bovilis BVD four weeks apart before breeding. He ensures that the booster shot is given at least four weeks before the start of breeding.
All cows are then given their annual booster shot of Bovilis BVD four weeks before the start of the breeding season.
Bovilis BVD is licensed to provide foetal protection. When administered at the correct time; at least four weeks pre-breeding, it will provide protection to the foetus during the risk period.
The switch to dairying started in 2015 with the purchase of weanling dairy heifers. These were put in calf in spring 2016. He milked 108 cows in 2017, rising to 123 in 2018 and 147 last year. He plans to milk 168 this year. The milk is supplied to Glanbia.
He installed a 14-unit parlour and has the framework for an additional six units. Straw-bedded housing was replaced last year with cubicles.

“Twelve years ago, we had a BVD outbreak in the suckler herd. We had two persistently infected (PI) calves born. Ever since then, we vaccinate every year with Bovilis BVD. We haven’t had a PI or any issue with BVD on the farm since”

Performance

He is producing 470kg milk solids/cow, at 4.54% fat and 3.7% protein. Stocking rate is 3.75 cows/ha on the milking platform.
A dry farm and good grass management enabled the cows to be out day and night until mid-November last year. They were grazing during the day until 30 November.
All breeding is done by AI with the later calvers bred to Hereford and Angus bulls. Peter operates a 10-week breeding season. Last year, 93% had calved within six weeks. This year, calving started on 24 January. All bull calves and beef cross heifer calves are sold at two to three weeks old.
He employs one full-time worker – Liam Walsh, a local man from a dairy farming background. “I would be lost without him.”

Emphasis on disease prevention

Peter Brophy is a strong believer in the importance of strategic vaccination to control the major disease threats.
He works closely with his veterinary practitioner Lar Keenan of Barrowvale Veterinary Clinic in ensuring that his herd health programme is fit for purpose.
In addition to BVD, annual vaccination protocols are in place for Leptospirosis and Salmonellosis. He also operates a whole herd IBR vaccination programme.
He had a “bit of a pneumonia problem” in calves after going out to grass last year. This has led to the decision to vaccinate calves with Bovilis® Bovipast RSP this year. They will get a primary shot at around two weeks of age followed by a booster shot four weeks later.

Dairy start-up course a massive help

Peter’s father died when he was two years old. His mother Margaret continued to run the farm which at that time consisted of sheep and breeding thoroughbred horses.
After completing secondary school, Peter studied maths and economics in UCD and after graduating went on to study for an MSc in business management in Dublin City University (DCU).
Half way through the post-graduate course, his mother got ill and he was forced to suspend his studies and come back to help run the farm.
He started to build a suckler herd which peaked at 100 cows. The heifer calves were reared to beef and the bulls were sold as weanlings to exporters.
Frustrated with the returns from suckling, he decided that for the farm to have a viable future he needed to develop a dairy enterprise.
He did a Teagasc dairy start-up course which was run by Abigail Ryan. He found this to be “of massive benefit.”
He is a member of the Greenfield Academy discussion group which is coordinated by Abigail Ryan and meets once a month.

Horses

The Brophy family home is at Shankill, Paulstown, a couple of miles from the dairy unit, across the Kilkenny/Carlow county boundary. “We are proud Kilkenny people.”

Margaret is still actively in involved in horse breeding on land around the family home. This and another portion of land nearby is also used for silage and grazing replacements.
The Brophy name is well known in horse racing circles. Notable breeding successes include the grade 1 mare Voler La Vedette and, in more recent times, the gelding Good Boy Bobby.


“We lost 3 animals in 10 days due to clostridial disease” Donegal sheep farmer shares his story

Sheep Roadshow

This year, in collaboration with XL vets and XL vets skillnet, we are raising awareness regarding the importance of animal health and well-being to the productivity and performance of sheep farming. Based on the successful Beef Weaning and Housing Roadshow that took place in seven marts across the country in 2018, this Sheep Health “Roadshow” will not take place in marts, but rather will feature on digital platforms such as this website and social media as we visit a number of farms across the country. This plan was put in place well before the current restrictions were implemented in the attempt to slow spread of COVID-19. At this time, we would like to take the opportunity to remind all those reading to ensure to follow all guidelines provided by the HSE in order to protect ourselves, the community and those that are most vulnerable.

Despite the pandemic we face, farming continues. For the purpose of this article and video below, we are sharing information regarding pasteurella pneumonia and clostridial diseases in sheep and measures by which farmers and veterinarians can take to prevent mortality as a result of the aforementioned diseases. Please share the link to this page with those who may benefit from this information. For further information, visit Bovilis.ie/sheep/clostridial-disease and/or www.xlvets.ie

Beef and sheep farming in Co.Donegal

“Three cattle deaths in the space of 10 days – I now know the importance of vaccination”, this was the message from Donegal beef and sheep farmer John Meehan. John has been farming in Ballyshannon all his life and has built a fine enterprise. Originally beef farming only, John made the decision some 15 years ago to enter sheep production. The flock consists of Suffolk and Texel cross ewes that start lambing on March 1st every year. In conjunction with his vet, Nick Garvey of Old Church Vets Ballyshannon, the preventative approach with regard to animal health is fundamental to the performance of John Meehan’s farm.

Clostridial vaccination on farm

Vaccination against clostridial disease is a necessity on this farm. However, vaccination was only implemented after three beef animals were lost to sudden death as a result of clostridial disease several years ago. “We lost three animals in ten days due to clostridial disease. When the first animal died, we were obviously disappointed but didn’t pass much remarks. When the second animal died, we then got the vet out and subsequently sent the animal to the lab for a post-mortem. By the time the results returned, we had lost another animal.” Following these mortalities, lab results and the advice from Nick, a vaccination programme was put in place to prevent any further mortalities due to clostridial disease.

Pasteurella pneumonia and clostridial diseases

When sheep arrived on farm, “it was an obvious decision that a vaccination programme was put in place for the flock” according to John. John consulted Nick as to the best programme to implement and Nick advised Heptavac-P plus for the prevention of pasteurella pneumonia and clostridial disease in sheep. All sheep that are new on the farm, including new-born lambs, receive two vaccination shots. Any animal that has received this primary course only gets one vaccination booster every 12 months. “Since we have started to vaccinate against pasteurella pneumonia and clostridial disease, we have not suffered any losses due to these diseases.”

Barriers to vaccination

Farmers encounter many barriers when they consider animal health and vaccinating their flock. According to Nick, “Labour, economics, vaccine value and vaccination administration” are all common challenges farmers face when considering vaccination. In response, John was in agreement that these are challenges farmers face quite regularly and not just for vaccination. “If I had known what I know now about the risks of clostridial disease to animals, I would have vaccinated straight away”. John tries to implement labour saving techniques when vaccinating where possible. “I purchased an automatic syringe, we save time when vaccinating as we don’t have to fill the syringe for every vaccination. We also have suitable handling facilities that makes the job easier and, in my opinion, suitable handling facilities are a must when working with sheep in particular”. Currently happy with his animal health protocol, John stressed that there is “unseen value” in the role of the preventative approach in farming. One animal mortality would “vaccinate a lot of sheep!” according to John. It is important to be proactive rather than reactive with animal health, “don’t wait until you have a death, get it fixed before it’s broken” advised John. 


Animal Health remains a priority on farm – Leptospirosis focus

We are currently in the middle of unprecedented times with regard to human health. We must all adhere to guidelines from the HSE with regard to personal hygiene and social distancing to slow the spread of COVID-19. Despite the global pandemic facing humans, animal health remains a priority for farmers.

Grazing systems have been largely disrupted by the weather this spring. Calving is drawing to a close and turnout to grass is beginning to happen in parts of the country where ground conditions allow. As calving comes to an end, focus turns to breeding management. Selecting the correct genetics is vital to the performance of the herd and in order to fully achieve the genetic potential of the herd, correct decisions with regard management, nutrition and animal health must occur. For the purpose of this article, we will focus on Leptospirosis, a disease that cattle are exposed to while at pasture and can effect their reproducitve performance.

In the pre-recorded video below, Cara Sheridan (Technical Advisor – MSD Animal Health) outlines the effect of Leptospirosis disease on cattle performance and mechanisms by which Leptospirosis can be controlled.

Leptospirosis is one of the most common causes of abortion in cattle in Ireland. It is an endemic disease, meaning that the majority of herds test positive for it.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease meaning it can cause disease in humans. Leptospirosis can be acquired from contact with urine, afterbirth or aborted foetus of an infected animal. Esentially, all those working with stock are potentially at risk. Clinical signs of the disease in humans are flu-like, with headaches and fever, occasionally progressing to meningitis.

  • There are two serovars of Leptospirosis commonly found in cattle in Ireland;

Leptospira interrogans hardjo and Leptospira borgpetersenii hardjo

Leptospirosis circulates in a herd by direct transmission from infected animals (new infections or carrier animals) or by indirect transmission through urine, birth fluids, milk, contaminated water or other species e.g. sheep. Leptospirosis is very difficult to eradicate as some cows can become carriers. Leptospires can also survive for up to six weeks in wet soil and stagnant water or slow moving streams.Clinical Signs of Leptospirosis

Early signs are usually mild and transient and therefore may go unnoticed.

The most common clinical signs include;

  • Milk drop – A sudden decrease in milk yield
  • Abortions – Usually occur 6-12 weeks after the initial infection.

Abortion rates may be up to 30% in a herd infected for the first time.

  • Infertility – Low pregnancy rates and therefore increased culling due to low fertility
  • Weak calves – Infection in late pregnancy can result in the birth of weak calves that die within a few hours of birth

Diagnosis of Leptospirosis

Based on;

  • Blood sampling and looking for high antibodies level in affected animals (which can prove difficult as often the infection were present 6-12 weeks before clinical signs become apparent e.g. low pregnancy rates picked up at scanning)
  • Culture of urine samples
  • Leptospiral abortion diagnosis is best based on finding bacteria in the foetus

Speak to your vet about investigating Leptospirosis in your herd.

Control of Leptospirosis

  • Isolation of the sick cow and aborting cow
  • Biosecurity  – Avoid the introduction of infected animals
  • Quarantine until test negative
  • Double fencing at perimeters
  • Vaccination – The only practical way of controlling Leptospirosis

Timing of Vaccination

It is essential to vaccinate heifers before their first pregnancy. The primary vaccination course consists of 2 injections 4-6 weeks apart and thereafter an annual booster before turnout and at least 2 weeks before breeding.  It is a 2ml dose, given under the skin to all cattle >1 month of age. The correct use and timing of vaccination are vital to their success, always read the manufacturers recommendations.

Why vaccinate with Leptavoid-H?

  • Leptavoid-H is the only vaccine licensed to protect against both strains of Leptospira hardjo
  • Leptavoid-H is the only vaccine that is licensed to improve conception rates where Leptospirosis has been diagnosed as a cause of infertility
  • Leptavoid-H can be used on the same day as Bovilis BVD (to cattle >8 months of age)

BVD eradication – Update and control measures

The incidence of BVD among Irish herds has declined dramatically since the introduction of the eradication programme in 2013. In 2013, there was 16,194 cattle identified as positive for BVD. In 2019, there was 1,109 cattle identified positive for BVD. As of week 11 2020 there has been 183 animals identified as positive for BVD in comparison to 229 for the same period in 2019. While these results indicate great progress has been achieved in eradicating this disease, these figures show that the virus still circulates in our national herd. To ensure this disease is eradicated we must continue our approach, as outlined below, at farm level since the introduction of the eradication programme.

How does BVD spread?

This mainly occurs by nose-to-nose contact between infected cattle within the herd. Introduction of infected animals (either transiently or persistently) to the herd provides the greatest risk. Contact with infected animals from neighbouring farms, at marts or shows and during transport facilitates spread of disease. Animals can be infected by exposure to contaminated equipment, other species including sheep or by visitors to the farm.

What is a transiently infected (TI) animal?

Acute or transient infection occurs when an animal becomes infected for the first time at any point in its life after it is born. The animal may scour and occasionally it can result in death of the affected individual but often this infection is not associated with any obvious signs. When animals are transiently infected with BVD their immune system recognises the disease and responds by producing antibodies to protect against the effects of BVD.
Transiently infected (TI) animals test virus positive at the time of infection but become virus negative within 3 weeks after infection. Once TI animals become clear of BVD virus they are no longer a threat to the rest of the herd. The majority of PI animals are born to cows which were transiently infected in the first 4 months of pregnancy.

Why do I need to vaccinate if I am testing all calves and removing PI’s?

Removal of PI animals will decrease the amount of virus circulating within the herd. However, if cows are not protected during pregnancy, transient infection during the first 4 months of pregnancy can result in the birth of future PI calves. The most effective approach to BVD control within the herd is to test and eradicate PI carriers, vaccinate to protect pregnant cows and be vigilant regarding biosecurity. On-going monitoring to ensure the herd control measures are working, form the last critical aspect of a comprehensive control plan.

Bovilis BVD Vaccination Protocol


8 CRITICAL POINTS RELATING TO BVD ERADICATION

  1. Tissue tag testing remains compulsory in 2020.
  2. Take tissue tag samples from all calves as soon as possible after birth.
  3. Submit samples to a designated laboratory.
  4. Tissue tag and test all calves born including still births.
  5. Carry out all necessary follow up testing once a PI is identified e.g. test dam of PI. If the dam is also positive all her other offspring must be tested. Where a decision is taken, based on veterinary advice, to re-test the calf, this must be done by means of a blood sample only (this also applies to testing of dams). DAFM will meet the costs of the visit by the herd’s veterinary practitioner and of testing the calf (and dam
    if sampled at the same time).
  6. A PI animal should not be sold but should be isolated and culled at the earliest opportunity. DAFM will automatically restrict movements into and out of herds that retain PI animals for more than 21 days after the date of the initial test (in the absence of a recorded date of death on AIM). DAFM supports for removal of PI calves remain at the following rates:
    a. BEEF HERDS:
    i. €220 for beef breed animals removed with a registered date of death on AIM within 10 days of the initial test, reducing to €30
    if removed between 11 and 21 days after the initial test.
    b. DAIRY HERDS:
    i. Dairy heifers and dairy cross calves: €160 if removed within 10 days of the initial test, reducing to €30 if removed between 11
    and 21 days after the initial test.
    ii. €30 for removal of bull calves within 14 days of the initial test.
    It is anticipated that from 1st April 2020, there will be a legal requirement to test pre-2013 born animals.
  7. Vaccinate all breeding animals before service each year to protect against infection.
  8. Maintain high level biosecurity and continue monitoring to ensure freedom from disease.

To find out more about BVD vaccination, please contact your veterinary practice.

Use Medicines Responsibly
Bovilis® BVD Suspension for injection for cattle vaccine contains inactivated antigen of cytopathogenic
BVD virus strain C-86.
Legal categories: ROI: POM (E) . NI: POM-V . Withdrawal period: zero days.
For further information please contact your vetinary practioner or MSD Animal Health Technical Team,
MSD Animal Health, Red Oak North, South County Business Park, Leopardstown, Dublin 18, Ireland.
Tel: +353(1) 2970220. E-Mail: vet-support.ie@merck.com
Web: www.msd-animal-health.ie


“I don’t have time for scouring calves” says Wicklow dairy farmer

Dairy farmer, Darren Healy explains how he combines scour vaccination and strict management practices to reduce the risk of calf scour emerging on his farm this spring

With another spring calving season about to begin, farmers are well into their preparations for the busy season ahead. For many, vaccination and applying key preventative practices will be priority in order to reduce the incidences of disease across their herds.    

Ready for Spring: Eamon, Kalinda, Darren Healy along with local vet Mark Drought from Avondale vet practice

Although calves are susceptible to many diseases from early life, calf scour is the most common illness in calves less than one month old. Rotavirus, Coronavirus and E.coli are some of the most common causes of calf scour which can lead to significant economic losses due to calf mortality, treatment costs, labour and reduced growth rates.

According to Co. Wicklow farmer, Darren Healy, prevention is always better than cure when it comes animal health. Located in Redcross Co. Wicklow, Darren is farming in partnership with his wife, Kalinda, and father, Eamon. The Healy’s are milking a 280 predominately Holstein Friesian herd. The farm is run on a grass based, spring calving system, with his herd calving from the beginning of February to the end of April.   

In order to maximise their milking platform and reduce labour costs, calves are sent to a contract rearer at two weeks of age. They undergo AI breeding and the various vaccination regimes whilst on the contract rearers farm before going back to the Healy’s 18 months later, approximately six weeks prior to the calving season.   

According to Darren, the control of calf scour is based on equally important preventative practices.  Vaccination is not used as a substitute for good quality colostrum, good hygiene practices or good housing management; they all go hand in hand in order to reduce the risk of calf illness and enhance thrive.  

Preventative Practices  

Colostrum Management

Colostrum is the single most important nutrient for the newborn calf as it contains high levels of energy, growth promoters, vitamins and immunoglobulins. Failure to provide enough good quality colostrum to calves immediately after birth will affect the calves long term health and performance.

According to Suzanne Naughton, Veterinary advisor with MSD Animal Health, “Feeding three litres of good quality colostrum as soon as possible after birth, and ideally within the first two hours, is critical in order to obtain the necessary antibodies which will kick start the calves immune system and help protect against disease. The ability to absorb antibodies drops substantially after six hours and is effectively non-existent after 24 hours. Vaccinating pregnant cattle with the MSD Animal Health scour vaccine 12 – 3 weeks prior to calving will boost the levels of Rotavirus, Coronavirus and E.coli antibodies in their colostrum. This will be passed to the new-born calf in the first colostrum feeding”.

Darren states that colostrum feeding is one of the most important factors on his farm. “When calves are born, they are fed colostrum as soon as possible. They are left suck the cow straight after calving and irrespective if the calf has sucked the cow or not, it will also receive three litres of colostrum. 

“Each year we try and up our game in some way. This year we purchased a Brix refractometer which allows us to determine if the colostrum is of a good quality.

“Over the last two years, we have really seen the benefits of managing our colostrum correctly. Weight gain and feed conversion has improved substantially, and we no longer experience incidences of scour,” says Darren.  

Calves receive colostrum up to day three, before transitioning to whole milk which is fed up to the time they leave the farm at 2 weeks of age.

Housing & Hygiene

Good hygiene is central to Darren’s calf rearing programme and is applied to all areas including housing, feeding and bedding. “We are very particular about calf hygiene. We have two calf rearing sheds which allows us to clean, disinfect and air out one shed and temperately hold the calves in the other shed”, says Darren. Calves are bedded twice a day with clean fresh straw and the calf feeders are scrubbed with soapy hot water after each feeding. The feeders are washed with a disinfectant

once a week. Darren has also invested in a number of large disinfectant mats which are located at the entrance of the calf sheds to reduce the risk of contamination from farm boots. Calves are housed in a well-ventilated calf shed where they have access to a dry deep straw bed and fresh clean water. Calf jackets are used on some calves under three weeks of age to prevent cold stress and maintain body heat.

Vaccination

Despite adopting these strict management practices, Darren stresses that calf scour is always going to be a threat if you don’t have a preventative health and management plan in place.

In calf cows that received the MSD Animal Health scour vaccine at least 3 weeks prior to calving

With the help of his vet, Mark Drought from Avondale Veterinary Hospital, a health plan is developed for each of Darren’s group of animals. Based on Mark’s recommendations, Darren uses a number of MSD Animal Health vaccines to reduce the risk of Scour caused by Rotavirus, Coronavirus and E. coli, Salmonella, Leptospirosis, IBR and pneumonia.

 “As per Mark’s health plan, we vaccinate cows 3 weeks prior to calving to protect the newborn calf from the main scour-causing bacteria. This is why we ensure that the calf receives colostrum as soon as possible after birth as the colostrum will contain these antibodies to protect the calf against scour.  

Calves are vaccinated with Bovipast RSP at 2 weeks of age to reduce the risk of pneumonia before they leave to go to the contract rearer. The booster shot is given on the contract rearers farm along with the other vaccines on the animal health plan.”, says Darren.    

Apart from prioritising animal health, Darren maintains that vaccination also makes more financial sense in the long run.

 “Animal health is priority on this farm and we also don’t have the time or labour to be able to treat sick animals. It makes more sense for me to vaccinate for calf scour every year as it means that I can budget and manage the cash flow for the year. I cannot account for the costs associated with a breakout of scour or even worse, losses of calves.”

The investment is clearly paying off for Darren as the work that the vet carries out on farm is 90% advisory compared to just 10% emergency.

“We rarely have any issues with sick calves and I believe this is a result of undertaking the appropriate preventative practices throughout the season”, concludes Darren.       

Hygiene critical to reduce incidence of calf scour

Mark Drought, vet partner with Avondale Veterinary Hospital in Wicklow said that creating a calf health plan with your vet now can save you time and money during the calving season “More and more calves are being born on farms during the Spring which increases the disease pressure on farm. With this expansion, space is sometimes at a premium. Vaccinating pregnant cattle against calf scour will reduce the risk of an outbreak amongst the calves during the calving season”. Vaccination alone won’t make calf scour disappear Mark warns.

Local vet practitioner Mark Drought of Avondale Vets on the farm of Darren Healy at Redcross, Co. Wicklow

“Colostrum feeding and hygiene go hand-in-hand with vaccination. Farmers are aware of the importance of feeding colostrum to the calf as soon as possible and ensuring that the calf has a deep, dry straw bed. However, hygiene isn’t always adhered to especially when storing colostrum and this can sometimes be the cause of scour in calves. Cleaning utensils thoroughly after each feeding will reduce the build-up of scour causing bacteria. If storing colostrum, use clean containers each time.

Farmers in my area that have vaccinated against calf scour have had very good results with it and are continuing to vaccinate against the disease in order to reduce the risk of calf scour emerging.

For more information, check out the scour page in the link below

Calf Scour